Rise of Austria and Prussia
How has the aftereffect of Thirty Years' War impact Europe?
Summary of Research
After the Thirty Years' War, the peace of Westphalia redrew the map of Europe. In the year 1648, the effete adversaries accepted a sequence of treaties. These treaties were known as the peace of Westphalia. A myriad of powers had been consumed in the contention, the war concluded with a general European peace an an exertion to settle other international bother as well. The thirty Years' War left Germany disconnected into more than 360 individual states, "one for every day of the year."Despite this the states still acknowledged the leadership of the Hoy Roman emperor. Beyond this, each state had it's singly government, coinage, state church, armed forces, and foreign policy.
" We have had blue coats and red coats and now come the yellow coats," cried the the citizens of one German town. "God have pity on us!" Year after year, war ravaged the German states of central Europe. As the Thirty Years' War continued on almost every European power was consumed into the conflict. Suddenly Austria and Prussia, two great German powers rose out of the ashes. Alike Louis XIV in France, these two powers accomplished their rulers skills as absolute monarchs. A French philosopher once said that the Holy Roman Empire was neither holy, nor Roman, nor an empire. Instead it was a mixture of certain hundred small, individual states. In theory, these states were controlled by the Holy Roman Emperor, who was chosen by seven leading called electors. Religion would further disconnect the German states. The north was predominantly Protestant, and the south was Catholic. This blend of diverse religious ideas sparked the Thirty Years' War.
The War Begins
Again the war that had been sparked had both religious and political incite. The war began in Bohemia, which is now present day Czech Republic. Ferdinand, the Hapsburg king of Bohemia, sought to suppress Protestants also to assert royal power upon the nobles. A Spanish proverb says that history is a common meadow in which everyone can make hay. But as both sides sought allies, what began as a local conflict grew into a general European war.
Amity at Last
Conclusively, during the year 1648, the tired combatants accepted several treaties, Peace of Westphalia. So many powers had been involved, consequently the war ended with European peace. However, France emerged as a clear winner, also winning territory on both Spanish and German frontiers. Hapsburg had lost drastically all because they had to accept the essential independence of all princes of the Holy Roman Empire. Eventually The Netherlands and the Swiss Federation (now Switzerland) won gained acknowledgment as liberated states.
Indivisibility and Diversity
Amalgamating These lands affirmed challenging. Separated by geography, these lands also included distinctive people and cultures. By the 1700s sections of the empire contained Germans, Magyar, Slavs, and others. Several areas of attained their own language, laws, assemblies, and customs. In the same year of 1700 the emperor Charles VI was challenged once again. He had no son. However, he did have daughter by th e name of Maria Theresa who was thought to be intelligent and capable, but no woman has yet ruled Hapsburg land in her own name. Charles did attempt to actuate rulers to recognize his daughter's rights to succeed him. But Charles had been evaded. The greatest threat yet to come was in the year 1740, when Frederick II of Prussia attained control of the rich Hapsburg province of Silesia. When Maria Theresa witnessed this she made a great plea to to Hungary for military help. As one account has noted, the nobles rose to their feet and cried, " Our lives and blood for your Majesty!". Maria Theresa's success with the nobles would eventually give her further aid from Brittan and Russia. During the time of the eight-year war Theresa was incapable of to force out Frederick II from Silesia. Despite this, she continued to preserve her empire and gained the support of a considerable amount of her people. Just as important, Theresa reinforced the Hapsburg power by reorganizing the bureaucracy and improving tax collection. Several of her reforms were later extended by her son and successor,Joseph II.
Proven to be effective, was Frederick's harsh military training. 1740 was the year that Frederick became King, he lost no time in using his army. Eventually Frederick II would boldly take control over Silesia from Austria, igniting the fire to the commencement of The War of the Austrian succession. In a myriad of other wars, Frederick used his army to his advantage. He forced all to embrace Prussia as a great power. Because of his exploits he earned the name Frederick the Great.
The Thirty years War' was one of the great conflicts of early modern European history. This war occurred during the years 1618-1648. This battle began as a fight of opposing religious and political. This war grew to be a war pertaining much of Europe. Several wars followed but then in the year 1648 there was peace at last, known as The Peace of Westphalia. In the year 1750 the great powers of Europe included Austria, Prussia, France, England and Russia.Together these countries formed various alliances to maintain the balance of power. On one occasion European rivalries ignited a worldly conflict. However, the treaty of Paris ending the wars gave Britain a huge empire.
Peter the Great
Along the Dutch waterfront observers noticed that Peter Mikhailov was no ordinary man. He stood nearly seven feet tall, had a booming laugh and a furious temper.
Autocrat and Reformer
At home, Peter accomplished many related goals. He had always wanted to strengthen the military expand Russian borders, and centralize royal power. to achieve these goals he brought all Russian boyars to serve the state in civilian or military jobs. Peter imported western technology, using autocratic methods, he pushed through social and economic reforms. He imported western technology, improved education, simplified the Russian alphabet, and set up academies for the study of mathematics, science, and engineering.
Catherine the Great
Peter had died without naming a successor, setting off power struggles among various Romanov. Under the rule of several ineffective rulers, Russian nobles re asserted their independence. A new monarch took the reins of power firmly in hand.
An Efficient Ruler
Catherine proved to be an efficient ruler, energetic empress. She reorganized the provincial government, codified laws, and began state sponsored education for boys and girls.
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